In the case of the integration of global economic development, the game between the big science and technology countries can easily have a significant impact on the development of the science and technology field.
China is planning a comprehensive new set of policies to develop its own semiconductor industry in response to U.S. government restrictions.
The third-generation semiconductor industry is about to develop vigorously
my country plans to put strong support for the development of the third-generation semiconductor industry into the “14th Five-Year Plan” being formulated. It is planned to vigorously support the development of education, scientific research, development, financing, application and other aspects during the period of 2021-2025. The third-generation semiconductor industry aims to achieve industrial independence and is no longer controlled by others.
After nearly 60 years of development, the semiconductor industry has developed three generations of semiconductor materials. The first-generation semiconductor materials mainly refer to elemental semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium; the second-generation semiconductor materials mainly refer to compound semiconductor materials, such as arsenic. Gallium oxide, indium antimonide; the third generation semiconductor materials are wide bandgap semiconductor materials, the most important of which are SiC and GaN.
According to the industry definition, the third-generation semiconductor materials refer to wide-bandgap semiconductor materials whose band gap width is significantly larger than that of silicon (Si), mainly including silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), diamond, etc. Greater than or equal to 2.3 electron volts, also known as wide bandgap semiconductor materials.
It has the advantages of high thermal conductivity, high breakdown field strength, high saturation electron drift rate and high bonding energy, which can meet the new requirements of modern Electronic technology for harsh conditions such as high temperature, high power, high voltage, high frequency and high radiation.
Compared with the previous two generations, the third-generation semiconductor materials are more superior in terms of molecular structure, which can not only reduce the energy loss by more than 50%, but also reduce the equipment volume by more than 75%.
The more important significance of third-generation semiconductors is to improve the performance of related chips and devices through their special material properties in the field of power devices.
The gap between the third-generation semiconductors and the international ones is not as obvious as that of the first- and second-generation semiconductors. The first-mover advantage is the characteristic of the semiconductor industry, such as silicon carbide SiC. The research start time of domestic manufacturers is similar to that of foreign manufacturers. Therefore, domestic manufacturers hope to catch up with foreign manufacturers and complete domestic substitution.
In the next three years, SiC materials will become the basic materials for high-power and high-frequency power semiconductor devices such as IGBTs and MOSFETs, and are widely used in AC motors, frequency converters, lighting circuits, and traction drives. It is estimated that the market size of SiC substrates will reach 954 million yuan by 2022.
In the future, with the expansion of 5G commercial use, the current manufacturers will further upgrade from the original 4G equipment to 5G. The deployment density of 5G base stations is even higher than that of 4G, and the materials used inside the base stations are GaN materials. It is expected that the market size of GaN substrates will reach 567 million yuan by 2022.
The third generation has risen to the national strategic level
From 2015 to 2016, the national major transformation of science and technology established a project for the development and application of third-generation semiconductor power devices.
In 2016, the State Council issued the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Science and Technology Innovation”, and launched a number of major projects for 2030. The third-generation semiconductor was listed as a major national science and technology innovation 2030 project “Key New Material R&D and Application”.
In addition, the “Made in China 2025” plan clearly proposes to vigorously develop the third-generation semiconductor industry, and requires that the localization rate in 5G communications and efficient energy management reach 50% by 2025; scale in new energy vehicles and consumer electronics. application, the penetration rate in the general lighting market has reached more than 80%.
On August 4, the State Council publicly issued “Several Policies for Promoting the High-Quality Development of the Integrated Circuit Industry and Software Industry in the New Era”, emphasizing that the integrated circuit industry and the software industry are the core of the information industry and lead a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation. The key force, which emphasizes that China’s chip self-sufficiency rate will reach 70% by 2025.
my country’s “Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Development Guide (2015-2020)” plan, by 2020, the goal of my country’s decentralized charging piles is more than 4.8 million, to meet the charging needs of 5 million electric vehicles in the country, and the ratio of vehicle piles is nearly 1. : 1. The charging module is the core component of the charging pile, and its cost accounts for 50% of the total equipment cost.
The third-generation semiconductor materials have a wide range of uses in both the military and civilian fields. The national strategic emerging industry policy has repeatedly mentioned the third-generation semiconductor devices represented by silicon carbide and gallium nitride, which are written in the “14th Five-Year Plan”. There are early signs of planning.
The third-generation semiconductor industry is of great strategic significance, but the domestic industry is still in its infancy, and lags behind the United States, Japan and Europe in terms of R&D and production. upsurge.
China’s semiconductor industry crisis still exists
The crisis in China’s semiconductor industry is not in the middle and lower reaches, but in the upper reaches. Without good raw materials and sophisticated equipment, even if the design is perfect in the manufacturing stage and the operation is precise, it will be difficult to compete with the top international products.
The upstream semiconductor raw materials are monopolized by Japanese companies Shin-Etsu and SUMCO, which account for almost 65% of the market share. In terms of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, companies from the United States, Japan and the Netherlands are in the forefront. In the author’s memory, the top ten companies in this field are all from these three countries, and their total market share has reached the market. ninety percent.
And as Sino-U.S. relations deteriorate, Chinese companies are facing increasing difficulties sourcing components and chip-making technology from overseas.
And with the development of the new computing era driven by the Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence, the demand for semiconductor devices is increasing, and the requirements for device reliability and performance indicators are also more stringent.
The third-generation semiconductors represented by silicon carbide have gradually attracted the attention of the market. A complete industrial chain covering materials, devices, modules and applications has been formed internationally, and a new round of global industrial upgrading has begun.
China’s chip imports in 2020 are expected to remain above $300 billion for the third consecutive year. According to relevant data released by the State Council, China’s chip self-sufficiency rate in 2019 was only about 30%.
Or become an important starting point for localization
At present, the third largest semiconductor material market shows a pattern of leading players from the United States, Japan and Europe. In contrast, China’s third-generation semiconductor industry is slightly weaker, and it lags behind in terms of technology leadership and market share.
A detailed study of the reasons for the leadership of the third-generation semiconductor industry in the United States, Japan and Europe is inseparable from the policy promotion of the governments of the United States, Japan and Europe. These countries have realized the strategic significance of the third-generation semiconductor materials in the fields of communication, military industry, aerospace and other fields earlier. Targeted layout started earlier.
In recent years, China’s emphasis on the semiconductor industry chain has also been highlighted. Whether it is the new infrastructure’s emphasis on 5G and integrated circuits, or the establishment of the two major national funds, they have provided soil for the chip industry and will also benefit semiconductor materials. innovation.
However, although my country is slightly behind in the layout of third-generation semiconductor materials, it has not encountered a “stuck neck” situation.
In addition, my country’s third-generation semiconductor device market has huge room for growth, which may become a major driving force for the development of upstream materials.
As global communications and emerging electronic technologies continue to develop, the market demand for third-generation semiconductor materials will continue to grow. Although it occupies less than 5% of the market, from another perspective, this also means that the third largest semiconductor material market is a blue ocean with huge potential incremental space.
This year, plans for big data, software, information and communications industries will be compiled during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The news pointed out that 2020 is the foundation year for the start of the new national “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will prepare high-quality “14th Five-Year Plan” plans. During the period, big data, software, information communication and other industrial planning.
As the cost of third-generation semiconductor materials decreases due to the continuous improvement of production technology, its application market will also usher in explosive growth, bringing new development opportunities to the semiconductor industry.
In the future, new energy vehicles, 5G communications, data centers and other fields will use the third-generation semiconductors on a large scale.
Under such a background, my country’s 13th Five-Year Plan is coming to an end, and the preparation of the 14th Five-Year Plan is starting. my country will include the development of the domestic semiconductor industry in the planning of the next 5-year plan. Appears to be in order.
The development of China’s semiconductor industry is very necessary, and the domestic rise will also vigorously develop the semiconductor industry to ensure the stable development of China’s electronic information industry.