Bloody battle lithography machine | Soldiers enter the lithography machine, Chinese chip bloody brave breakthrough

Lithography machine, known as the flower of the modern optical industry, is very difficult to manufacture, and only a few companies in the world can manufacture it. Its price is as high as 70 million US dollars. The lithography machine used to produce chips is China’s biggest shortcoming in semiconductor equipment manufacturing, and the high-end lithography machines required by domestic fabs are completely dependent on imports.

Investment Opportunities in the Semiconductor Industry

Semiconductor is a typical technology-intensive industry. Currently, there is a big gap with developed countries such as the United States and Japan. The domestic semiconductor industry in the early stage of development has inherent market advantages and huge room for future growth.

Of course, the semiconductor industry has a large investment in early research and development, and corporate profits are slightly insufficient. Investors need to be patient enough. If the product research and development is successful over time, due to the high industry barriers, the corporate moat is wider, and the industry profits are very considerable.

5G will usher in large-scale commercial use in 2020. Compared with 4G mobile phones, 5G smartphones will have a substantial increase in the value of chips such as RF front-ends. Driven by the shipment of 5G smartphones, the capacity utilization rate of semiconductor manufacturing, packaging and testing is expected to increase significantly.

In addition, the second phase of the National Integrated Circuit Industry Investment Fund (Big Fund) established to promote the development of the integrated circuit industry has been established with a capital scale of over 204.1 billion yuan, focusing on the field of semiconductor upstream equipment and materials.

To sum up: the semiconductor industry has entered a period of rapid development, and the sector has ushered in a wave of investment, superimposed on the realization of 5G applications in the next few years, and the layout of the semiconductor industry is at the right time.

Domestic lithography machine, walking on a tortuous but progressive road

Although ASML is great, it belongs to someone else after all. For China, only by mastering the core technology can it not be constrained by the outside world.

China’s research on lithography machines started not too late. Probably in the 1970s, the early models were mainly contact lithography machines. The so-called contact lithography machine, that is, the mask is attached to the wafer. The 1445 Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences developed a contact lithography machine in 1977, about 20 years later than the United States.

Soldiers enter the lithography machine, Chinese chips bravely break through the siege

In 1985, the 45th Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Department developed the first step-by-step projection lithography machine, and the United States developed this kind of lithography machine in 1978, using a 436nm G-line light source at that time.

In the 1990s, the technology of domestic lithography machines was not far from that of foreign countries, roughly equivalent to the level of foreign countries in the mid-1980s.

However, you must know that for a lithography machine, every step forward in the process (that is, the wavelength of the light source), the difficulty of manufacturing and the required capital increase exponentially, and the more difficult it is to go forward.

Since 2000, my country has started a project to study 193nm ArF lithography machine. As mentioned earlier, ASML was already working on EUV lithography machines at that time.

In 2002, the lithography machine was included in the national 863 major scientific and technological research plan, and the Ministry of Science and Technology and Shanghai jointly promoted the establishment of Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Co., Ltd. to undertake.

Shanghai Microelectronics basically also represents the highest level of domestic lithography machines. After more than ten years of development, its self-developed 600 series lithography machine can achieve mass production of 90nm process chips, using 193nm ArF light source.

Obviously, from the point of view of process technology, the gap between domestic lithography machines and ASML is very large. However, other countries in the world have basically not mass-produced lithography machines of 157nm and below. From this perspective, domestic lithography machines and international standards other than ASML are not far behind.

At present, Shanghai Microelectronics is still researching a lithography machine for 65nm process chips. It is hard to say when it will be made.

In short, the current level of process that can be achieved by domestic lithography machines is still stuck at 90nm, which is significantly different from ASML. High-end lithography machines still have to be imported.

There are no shortcuts in the semiconductor industry

The situation in the world is changing, and reality constantly urges us to make breakthroughs in the field of semiconductor technology as soon as possible.

However, in this industry, there are actually no shortcuts or corners to overtake. There is only one process node to break through and accumulate technology. If you want to catch up with the international leading level, you can only devote more energy and more resources.

Lithography machine, of course, is crucial, but it does not mean that China’s semiconductor industry can leap forward by spending money to buy an EUV lithography machine.

At the same time, the rapid pace of evolution in this industry does not give researchers much incentive to achieve results. They must work hard for ten years or even decades.

And this is the reason why ASML can rise, and it is the only way we want to catch up.

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Samsung is on fire again this time, and the third-generation HBM2E video memory with a single maximum capacity of 16GB is on the market

A few days ago, Samsung officially announced the launch of the third-generation HBM2 (HBM2E) memory chip called Flashbolt.

The third-generation HBM2 memory chip has a maximum capacity of 16GB. It is composed of a 16Gb single die stacked in 8 layers, which can achieve a packaging capacity of 16GB and ensure a stable data transmission speed of 3.2Gbps.


Samsung said that the new 16GB HBM2E is particularly suitable for high-performance computing (HPC) systems, and can help system manufacturers improve their supercomputers, AI-driven data analysis and the latest graphics systems in a timely manner.

Samsung expects third-generation HBM2 memory chips to start mass production in the first half of this year. Samsung will continue to offer its second-generation Aquabolt lineup while expanding its third-generation Flashbolt offering.

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Intel vs. Apple’s 12th Gen Core runs higher than M1 Pro but has lower energy efficiency

The current running score data ranking of the geekbench website

Sina Digital News on the morning of November 8th, Intel launched its first 12th-generation Core processor “Alder Lake” last week, and some foreign media compared it with Apple’s latest chip.

First of all, this is not a fair test, because the 12th-generation Core is the processor for desktop computers (there is no mobile version yet), but as the strongest voice of the traditional camp, people are still happy to see it with the latest products of Apple’s M series comparison.

Geekbench 5 benchmark results for the Core i9-12900K show that the processor is nearly 1.5 times faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max in terms of multi-core performance. Specifically, the Core i9 processors have averaged around 18,500 multi-core scores so far, while the M1 Pro and M1 Max have averaged around 12,500.

AnandTech shared additional benchmarks to gain further insight into performance.

While the Core i9 processor is much faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max, it also consumes significantly more power than Apple’s chips, hitting 125W at base frequency and up to 241W at Turbo.

Intel’s 12th-gen Core i7-12700K also appeared to be faster than the M1 Pro and M1 Max in the Geekbench 5 results, but was also more power-hungry.

This result is in line with expectations. Although Apple advertises that its chip is powerful, it also emphasizes that its “energy efficiency ratio” is high, that is, it does more things with the same energy consumption, which further reduces heat generation. And because of Apple’s closed ecology, these chips can only serve Apple products.

Intel is expected to release 12th-generation Core processors for laptops in early 2022, including the high-end Core i9-12900K, a 16-core chip with eight performance cores and eight efficiency cores. Apple is also expected to use its own M1 Pro and M1 Max chips for future iMac product lines. The battle between the two will continue in the future.

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Three Considerations for Choosing Ethernet for Harsh Industrial Environments

Since its inception, Ethernet has grown by leaps and bounds and is now widely used in commercial and enterprise markets. Due to its well-defined standards and ease of deployment, the widespread spread of Ethernet in the industrial world is also logical. However, it still takes a lot of insight and effort to meet the requirements of Ethernet in harsh industrial environments.

Since its inception, Ethernet has grown by leaps and bounds and is now widely used in commercial and enterprise markets. Due to its well-defined standards and ease of deployment, the widespread spread of Ethernet in the industrial world is also logical. However, it still takes a lot of insight and effort to meet the requirements of Ethernet in harsh industrial environments.

As shown in Figure 1, industrial and commercial environments are quite different and present their own set of challenges. Industrial environments tend to include many harsh conditions, such as higher temperature ranges and voltages, greater noise, mechanical stress, and more. Industrial Ethernet physical layer (PHY) must comply with the requirements of the Ethernet protocol. In this article, I will briefly describe the three most important factors to consider when choosing an Ethernet physical layer for your system.

Figure 1: Modern industrial setup via wireless and wired connections (including Ethernet)

1. Low latency. Latency refers to the time it takes for a packet to travel from source to destination. Different parts of the network will contribute to the total network latency. Communication in industrial networks is time-critical, which means lowest latency and highest determinism. Higher latency and different packet arrival times can degrade system performance.

Standard Ethernet is non-deterministic. The IEEE 802.3 standard does not specify the maximum number of delays for the Ethernet physical layer. However, it becomes very important for Ethernet transceivers in industrial environments to have low and deterministic latency. Low, deterministic latency speeds response time and improves predictability. Low latency allows applications to run faster because information travels through the network with less latency, while high deterministic latency improves synchronization across networks by keeping latency constant.

2. EMI/EMC reduction. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is electromagnetic energy that is unintentionally generated by a system. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), on the other hand, refers to the ability of a system to operate in an environment where other systems generate electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) are important parameters in industrial environments because of the potential for multiple sources of electromagnetic energy. Systems with poor immunity to EMI radiate large amounts of energy, which can disrupt nearby sensitive devices and reduce efficiency because energy is wasted in radiation. A design with poor electromagnetic compatibility can make the system highly sensitive and cause performance problems. The performance of systems with poor EMC design can be affected by other typical sources of radiation, such as Wi-Fi, cell phones, etc.

Different EMI/EMC standards exist, such as European Committee for Standardization (EN), International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR), Federal Communications Commission (FCC), etc., which vary by region and intended market. Devices must meet the requirements specified in these standards before they can be certified for use. These standards vary with the end application of the device. EMI/EMC standards in the industrial market are more stringent than in the commercial market.

3.ESD protection. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is an electrical current that suddenly enters a system through contact with a charged body. ESD events are short-lived, but they can inject a lot of energy into a system. If the device is not designed to withstand such an event, the result is likely to be devastating for the device, often resulting in its destruction. Since electrostatic discharge does not always leave visible signs of damage, it can be difficult to find damaged equipment in complex systems. As such an important parameter, ESD standards have been formulated so that devices must meet their minimum requirements, such as International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61000-4-2, depending on their end application. Similar to EMI/EMC, ESD requirements in the industrial market are more stringent than in the commercial market.

Industrial Ethernet PHYs should have low deterministic latency, meet stringent EMI/EMC standards, and be resistant to ESD events. TI’s Ethernet portfolio is designed to meet these requirements and is already in use in many harsh industrial environments around the world, including the DP83867 Gigabit Ethernet PHY customized for harsh industrial environments and the DP83826E low latency 10/100Mbps Ethernet Physical layer and other equipment.

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The crisis still exists, and the third-generation semiconductor industry may be written into the “14th Five-Year Plan”


In the case of the integration of global economic development, the game between the big science and technology countries can easily have a significant impact on the development of the science and technology field.

China is planning a comprehensive new set of policies to develop its own semiconductor industry in response to U.S. government restrictions.

The third-generation semiconductor industry is about to develop vigorously

my country plans to put strong support for the development of the third-generation semiconductor industry into the “14th Five-Year Plan” being formulated. It is planned to vigorously support the development of education, scientific research, development, financing, application and other aspects during the period of 2021-2025. The third-generation semiconductor industry aims to achieve industrial independence and is no longer controlled by others.

After nearly 60 years of development, the semiconductor industry has developed three generations of semiconductor materials. The first-generation semiconductor materials mainly refer to elemental semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium; the second-generation semiconductor materials mainly refer to compound semiconductor materials, such as arsenic. Gallium oxide, indium antimonide; the third generation semiconductor materials are wide bandgap semiconductor materials, the most important of which are SiC and GaN.

According to the industry definition, the third-generation semiconductor materials refer to wide-bandgap semiconductor materials whose band gap width is significantly larger than that of silicon (Si), mainly including silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), diamond, etc. Greater than or equal to 2.3 electron volts, also known as wide bandgap semiconductor materials.

It has the advantages of high thermal conductivity, high breakdown field strength, high saturation electron drift rate and high bonding energy, which can meet the new requirements of modern Electronic technology for harsh conditions such as high temperature, high power, high voltage, high frequency and high radiation.

Compared with the previous two generations, the third-generation semiconductor materials are more superior in terms of molecular structure, which can not only reduce the energy loss by more than 50%, but also reduce the equipment volume by more than 75%.

The more important significance of third-generation semiconductors is to improve the performance of related chips and devices through their special material properties in the field of power devices.

The gap between the third-generation semiconductors and the international ones is not as obvious as that of the first- and second-generation semiconductors. The first-mover advantage is the characteristic of the semiconductor industry, such as silicon carbide SiC. The research start time of domestic manufacturers is similar to that of foreign manufacturers. Therefore, domestic manufacturers hope to catch up with foreign manufacturers and complete domestic substitution.

In the next three years, SiC materials will become the basic materials for high-power and high-frequency power semiconductor devices such as IGBTs and MOSFETs, and are widely used in AC motors, frequency converters, lighting circuits, and traction drives. It is estimated that the market size of SiC substrates will reach 954 million yuan by 2022.

In the future, with the expansion of 5G commercial use, the current manufacturers will further upgrade from the original 4G equipment to 5G. The deployment density of 5G base stations is even higher than that of 4G, and the materials used inside the base stations are GaN materials. It is expected that the market size of GaN substrates will reach 567 million yuan by 2022.

The third generation has risen to the national strategic level

From 2015 to 2016, the national major transformation of science and technology established a project for the development and application of third-generation semiconductor power devices.

In 2016, the State Council issued the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Science and Technology Innovation”, and launched a number of major projects for 2030. The third-generation semiconductor was listed as a major national science and technology innovation 2030 project “Key New Material R&D and Application”.

In addition, the “Made in China 2025” plan clearly proposes to vigorously develop the third-generation semiconductor industry, and requires that the localization rate in 5G communications and efficient energy management reach 50% by 2025; scale in new energy vehicles and consumer electronics. application, the penetration rate in the general lighting market has reached more than 80%.

On August 4, the State Council publicly issued “Several Policies for Promoting the High-Quality Development of the Integrated Circuit Industry and Software Industry in the New Era”, emphasizing that the integrated circuit industry and the software industry are the core of the information industry and lead a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation. The key force, which emphasizes that China’s chip self-sufficiency rate will reach 70% by 2025.

my country’s “Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Development Guide (2015-2020)” plan, by 2020, the goal of my country’s decentralized charging piles is more than 4.8 million, to meet the charging needs of 5 million electric vehicles in the country, and the ratio of vehicle piles is nearly 1. : 1. The charging module is the core component of the charging pile, and its cost accounts for 50% of the total equipment cost.

The third-generation semiconductor materials have a wide range of uses in both the military and civilian fields. The national strategic emerging industry policy has repeatedly mentioned the third-generation semiconductor devices represented by silicon carbide and gallium nitride, which are written in the “14th Five-Year Plan”. There are early signs of planning.

The third-generation semiconductor industry is of great strategic significance, but the domestic industry is still in its infancy, and lags behind the United States, Japan and Europe in terms of R&D and production. upsurge.

China’s semiconductor industry crisis still exists

The crisis in China’s semiconductor industry is not in the middle and lower reaches, but in the upper reaches. Without good raw materials and sophisticated equipment, even if the design is perfect in the manufacturing stage and the operation is precise, it will be difficult to compete with the top international products.

The upstream semiconductor raw materials are monopolized by Japanese companies Shin-Etsu and SUMCO, which account for almost 65% of the market share. In terms of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, companies from the United States, Japan and the Netherlands are in the forefront. In the author’s memory, the top ten companies in this field are all from these three countries, and their total market share has reached the market. ninety percent.

And as Sino-U.S. relations deteriorate, Chinese companies are facing increasing difficulties sourcing components and chip-making technology from overseas.

And with the development of the new computing era driven by the Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence, the demand for semiconductor devices is increasing, and the requirements for device reliability and performance indicators are also more stringent.

The third-generation semiconductors represented by silicon carbide have gradually attracted the attention of the market. A complete industrial chain covering materials, devices, modules and applications has been formed internationally, and a new round of global industrial upgrading has begun.

China’s chip imports in 2020 are expected to remain above $300 billion for the third consecutive year. According to relevant data released by the State Council, China’s chip self-sufficiency rate in 2019 was only about 30%.

Or become an important starting point for localization

At present, the third largest semiconductor material market shows a pattern of leading players from the United States, Japan and Europe. In contrast, China’s third-generation semiconductor industry is slightly weaker, and it lags behind in terms of technology leadership and market share.

A detailed study of the reasons for the leadership of the third-generation semiconductor industry in the United States, Japan and Europe is inseparable from the policy promotion of the governments of the United States, Japan and Europe. These countries have realized the strategic significance of the third-generation semiconductor materials in the fields of communication, military industry, aerospace and other fields earlier. Targeted layout started earlier.

In recent years, China’s emphasis on the semiconductor industry chain has also been highlighted. Whether it is the new infrastructure’s emphasis on 5G and integrated circuits, or the establishment of the two major national funds, they have provided soil for the chip industry and will also benefit semiconductor materials. innovation.

However, although my country is slightly behind in the layout of third-generation semiconductor materials, it has not encountered a “stuck neck” situation.

In addition, my country’s third-generation semiconductor device market has huge room for growth, which may become a major driving force for the development of upstream materials.

As global communications and emerging electronic technologies continue to develop, the market demand for third-generation semiconductor materials will continue to grow. Although it occupies less than 5% of the market, from another perspective, this also means that the third largest semiconductor material market is a blue ocean with huge potential incremental space.

This year, plans for big data, software, information and communications industries will be compiled during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The news pointed out that 2020 is the foundation year for the start of the new national “14th Five-Year Plan” period. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will prepare high-quality “14th Five-Year Plan” plans. During the period, big data, software, information communication and other industrial planning.

As the cost of third-generation semiconductor materials decreases due to the continuous improvement of production technology, its application market will also usher in explosive growth, bringing new development opportunities to the semiconductor industry.

In the future, new energy vehicles, 5G communications, data centers and other fields will use the third-generation semiconductors on a large scale.


Under such a background, my country’s 13th Five-Year Plan is coming to an end, and the preparation of the 14th Five-Year Plan is starting. my country will include the development of the domestic semiconductor industry in the planning of the next 5-year plan. Appears to be in order.

The development of China’s semiconductor industry is very necessary, and the domestic rise will also vigorously develop the semiconductor industry to ensure the stable development of China’s electronic information industry.

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Vital sign monitoring technology: monitoring the state of the human body

Vital sign monitoring has moved beyond medical practice and into multiple areas of our daily lives. Initially, vital sign monitoring was performed in hospitals and clinics under strict medical supervision. Advances in microelectronics have lowered the cost of monitoring systems, making these technologies more pervasive and ubiquitous in areas such as telemedicine, sports, fitness and health, workplace safety, and the automotive market, which is increasingly focused on autonomous driving. Although these extensions are implemented, high quality standards are still maintained because these applications are highly related to health.

vital signs

Vital signs monitoring involves measuring a range of physiological parameters that can indicate an individual’s health. Heart rate is one of the most common parameters that can be detected with an electrocardiogram, which measures the frequency of the heartbeat and, most importantly, changes in the heartbeat. Heart rate variability is often caused by activity. During sleep or rest, the rhythm is slower but tends to speed up with factors such as physical activity, emotional responses, stress or anxiety.

A heart rate outside the normal range may indicate a condition such as bradycardia (when the heart rate is too low) or tachycardia (when the heart rate is too high). Breathing is another key vital sign. The degree of oxygenation of the blood can be measured using a technique called photoplethysmography (PPG). Hypoxia may be associated with disease flares or disorders affecting the respiratory system. Other vital sign measurements that can reflect an individual’s physical condition include blood pressure, body temperature, and skin conductance response. The skin conductance response, also known as the galvanic skin response, is closely related to the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn is directly involved in mediating emotional sexual behavior. Measuring skin conductance can reflect a patient’s stress, fatigue, mental state, and emotional response. In addition, by measuring body composition, percentages of lean and fat body mass, as well as hydration and nutritional levels, an individual’s clinical status can be clearly displayed. Finally, measuring movement and posture can provide useful information about the subject’s activity.

Figure 1. Signal chain for optical measurements

Technology to measure vital signs

To monitor vital signs such as heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and temperature, skin conductivity and body composition, a variety of sensors are required, and the solution must be compact, energy efficient and reliable. Vital signs monitoring includes:

u Optical measurement

u Biopotential measurement

u Impedance measurement

u Measurements using MEMS sensors

Figure 2. A Complete Bioelectricity and Bioimpedance Measurement System

Optical measurement

Optical measurements go beyond standard semiconductor technology. To perform this type of measurement, an optical measurement toolbox is required. Figure 1 shows a typical signal chain for optical measurements. A light source (usually an LED) is required to generate the light signal, which may consist of different wavelengths. Several wavelengths are combined to achieve higher measurement accuracy. A series of silicon or germanium sensors (photodiodes) are also required to convert the light signal into an electrical signal, also known as photocurrent. Photodiodes must have sufficient sensitivity and linearity in response to the wavelength of the light source. Afterwards, the photocurrent must be amplified and converted, so a high-performance, power-efficient, multi-channel analog front end is required to control the LEDs, amplify and filter the analog signal, and perform analog-to-digital conversion with the required resolution and precision.

Optical system packaging also plays an important role. A package is not just a container, but a system containing one or more optical windows that filter incoming and outgoing light without undue attenuation or reflection that would compromise signal integrity. To create a compact multi-chip system, the optical system package must also contain multiple devices, including LEDs, photodiodes, analog and digital processing chips. Finally, a coating technique capable of creating optical filters is also suggested to select the desired part of the spectrum for the application and to eliminate unwanted signals. The app must function properly even in sunlight. Without an optical filter, the magnitude of the signal would saturate the analog chain, preventing the electronics from functioning properly.

Analog Devices offers a range of photodiodes and various analog front ends capable of processing the signals received from the photodiodes and controlling the LEDs. A complete optical system is also available, which integrates LED, photodiode, and front-end into one device, such as the ADPD188.

Biopotential and Bioimpedance Measurements

Biopotential is an electrical signal caused by the effects of electrochemical activity in our body. Examples of biopotential measurements include electrocardiograms (ECGs) and electroencephalograms. They examine very low-amplitude signals in frequency bands where multiple interferences are present. Therefore, before the signal can be processed, it must be amplified and filtered. ECG biopotential measurements are widely used for vital signs monitoring, and ADI offers several components to perform this task, including the AD8233, ADAS1000 chip family.

Designed for wearable applications, the AD8233 can be combined with the ADuCM3029, a Cortex®-M3-based system-on-chip (SoC), to create a complete system. In addition, the ADAS1000 series is designed for high-end applications with low power consumption and high performance, especially for battery-operated portable devices, with scalable power and noise (i.e., noise levels can be reduced proportionally with increasing power consumption) , is an excellent integrated solution for clinical level applications.

Bioimpedance is another measurement that can provide useful information about the state of the body. Impedance measurements provide information on electrochemical activity, body composition, and hydration status. Measuring each parameter requires the use of different measurement techniques. The number of electrodes required for each measurement technique, and the point in time at which the technique is applied, varies depending on the frequency range used.

For example, when measuring skin impedance a low frequency (up to 200 Hz) is used, while when measuring body composition a fixed frequency of 50 kHz is usually used. Likewise, in order to measure hydration and properly assess intracellular and extracellular fluids, different frequencies are used.

Although techniques may vary, all bioimpedance and impedance measurements can be implemented using a single-ended AD5940. The device provides excitation signals and a complete impedance measurement chain to generate different frequencies to meet a variety of measurement requirements. In addition, the AD5940 is designed to be used with the AD8233 to create a comprehensive bioimpedance and biopotential reading system, as shown in Figure 2. Other devices for impedance measurement include the ADuCM35x family of SoC solutions. In addition to a dedicated analog front end, the solution provides a Cortex-M3 microcontroller, memory, hardware accelerators, and communication peripherals for electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

Motion Measurement Using MEMS Sensors

Because MEMS sensors can detect gravitational acceleration, they can be used to detect activity and abnormalities such as erratic gait, falls or concussions, and even monitor the posture of subjects while they are at rest. In addition, MEMS sensors can complement optical sensors, which are susceptible to motion artifacts; when this happens, the information provided by the accelerometer can be used to correct it. The ADXL362 is one of the hottest devices in the medical field and the lowest power triaxial accelerometer on the market today. It has a programmable measurement range from 2 g to 8 g and digital output.

Figure 3. ADPD4000 for implementing optoelectronic, biopotential, bioimpedance, and temperature measurements

ADPD4000: Universal Analog Front End

Currently available wearable devices on the market, such as smart bracelets and smart watches, provide a variety of vital signs monitoring functions. The most common of these are heart rate monitors, pedometers, and calorie counters. In addition, blood pressure and body temperature, galvanic skin activity, changes in blood volume (via photoplethysmography), and other indicators are often measured. As the number of monitoring options increases, so does the need for highly integrated Electronic components. The ADPD4000 features an extremely flexible architecture designed to help designers meet this need. In addition to providing biopotential and bioimpedance readings, it can manage optoelectronic measurement front ends, guide LEDs, and read photodiodes. The ADPD4000 features a temperature sensor for compensation and a switch matrix that directs the desired output and capture signal, either single-ended or differential voltage. The output can be selected, which can be single-ended output or differential output, which is determined by the input requirements of the ADC to be connected to the ADPD4000. The device can be programmed to use 12 different time bands, each dedicated to processing a specific sensor. Figure 3 summarizes the key features of the ADPD4000 in several typical applications.

in conclusion

As technology advances, vital sign monitoring is becoming more and more common in all walks of life, as well as in our daily lives. Whether for treatment or prevention, such health-related solutions require reliable and effective technology. Those designing vital signs monitoring systems will be able to find a range of solutions to their design challenges within ADI’s extensive product portfolio dedicated to implementing signal processing.

About the Author

Cosimo Carriero joined Analog Devices in 2006 as a Field Applications Engineer providing technical support to strategic and key customers. He holds a master’s degree in physics from the Università degli Studi in Milan, Italy. His past experience includes defining and developing experimental instruments for nuclear physics at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics, working with small companies to develop sensors and systems for factory automation, and as a senior designer of satellite power management systems at Thales Alenia Aerospace engineer.

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